Mathematical disciplines began in antiquity with the Babylonians and with Hellenistic writers such as Archimedes and Ptolemy. During the classical period in Greece (6th, 5th and 4th centuries BCE) natural philosophy slowly developed into an exciting and contentious field of study.
When the earth is ravaged and the animals are dying, a new tribe of people shall come unto the earth from many colors, classes, creeds and who by their actions and deeds shall make the earth green again. They will be known as the warriors of the rainbow. — Native American Prophecy
Chief Standing Bear of the Ponca tribe was the central figure of an 1879 court case that established that Native Americans are "persons" under the law. Standing Bear's desire to honor his son's wish that he be buried in his Nebraska birthplace led to the trial for which he is best remembered today.
In Classical antiquity, the Hellenistic period covers the time in Mediterranean history after Classical Greece, between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire. The Ancient Greek word Hellas was gradually recognized as the name for Greece.